This medication is a combination of Amiloride and Hydrochlorothiazide also used in the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. Amiloride also called as water pill, is a potassium-sparing diuretic that was approved in 1967 for the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Amiloride works by directly blocking the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) thereby inhibiting sodium reabsorption in the late distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules, and collecting ducts in the kidneys. This promotes the loss of sodium and water from the body, but without depleting potassium. HCTZ is often used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, symptomatic edema and the prevention of kidney stones. It belongs to the thiazide class of diuretics that acts by inhibiting the kidneys’ ability to retain water.

This goes on to reduce the volume of the blood, decreasing blood return to the heart and thus cardiac output and, by other means, is believed to lower peripheral vascular resistance. Amiloride is used in combination with hydrochlorothiazide or HCTZ to balance the electrolyte levels. Hydrochlorothiazide decreases potassium levels in the blood wheareas amiloride increases potassium levels in the blood to keep away from hypokalemia. Edema, dropsy or hydropsy is an abnormal accumulation of excessive amount of watery fluid in cells, tissues, or body cavities, causing swelling. Edema can cause due to the contribution of number of factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, reduced oncotic pressure within blood vessels, increased tissue oncotic pressure, increased blood vessel wall permeability, obstruction of fluid clearance via the lymphatic system, changes in the water retaining properties of the tissues.

The conditions like hypertension, overweight, over-eating, low blood pressure, high salt food, insect bite, spider bite, air travel, pregnancy and so on are the factors that play a major role. Thus, exercises and walking should be included in daily life. Different types of edema include cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, eye edema, or peripheral edema. Causes of edema which are generalized to the whole body can cause edema in multiple organs and peripherally. Peripheral edema is the swelling of tissues, usually in the lower limbs like feet ankle or legs, occurring due to the accumulation of fluids. Peripheral edema can also appear by sitting for a prolonged period of time or standing without moving. Some medicines are also known to cause or worsen the condition. According to most physicians, edema may occur before there is any significant protein in the urine (protein-uria) or fall in plasma protein level. Further studies also indicate that most forms of nephrotic syndrome are due to biochemical and structural changes in the basement membrane of capillaries in the kidney glomerulae, and these changes occur, if to a lesser degree, in the vessels of most other tissues of the body. Thus the resulting increase in permeability that leads to protein in the urine can explain the edema if all other vessels are more permeable as well.